Extracellular matrix proteins are commonly used in cell culture systems to maintain stem and precursor cells in an undifferentiated state during cell culture and function to induce differentiation of epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro. Keywords:Extracellular matrix, vascular smooth muscle … … Mechanical Strain–Induced Extracellular Matrix Production by Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells | Hypertension Abstract—Elevated blood pressure imposes increased mechanical stress on the vascular wall, and mechanical strain is a mitogenic stimulus for vascular smooth muscle … After arterial injury, quiescent, contractile VSMCs undergo a change in phenotype; they proliferate and migrate from the media to the intima. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the main component of medial layer of arteries, play an important role in neointimal hyperplasia. This can happen when “pathological changes in the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix that surrounds and supports smooth muscle cells in tissue” interfere with the force … Muscle fibers are coated by an extracellular matrix material (ECM), called the basement membrane, and composed of two layers: an internal, basal lamina, directly linked to the plasma membrane of myofibers … The structural and functional alterations of the epithelium, extracellular matrix and airway smooth muscle … Actin cytoskeletal reorganization facilitates smooth muscle contraction by promoting force transmission between the contractile unit and the extracellular matrix … Well-organized and distinct extracellular matrix networks exist within both striated and cardiac muscles. Objective: Extracellular matrix dysregulation in the aortic media has been considered as the intrinsic factor for the formation of thoracic aortic dissection. Yet, the mechanism behind premature cervical softening/dilation in humans remains unclear. Small airways (<2 mm in diameter) are probably involved across almost all asthma severities and they show proportionally more structural and functional abnormalities with increasing asthma severity. In the last several years, the development of reagents that recognize smooth muscle-specific proteins has enabled researchers to identify smooth muscle cells (SMC) in tissue undergoing both differentiation and repair. Activated fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Individual muscle cells are separated by a fine collagen fiber network embedded in a proteoglycan matrix (the endomysium). Single unit smooth muscle, however, is most common and lines blood vessels (except large elastic arteries), the urinary tract, and the digestive tract. A. Regeneration B. Extracellular matrix … The latest volume in the Biology of the Extracellular Matrix … IL-1 secreted by macrophages increases decorin syn-thesis (30), while inhibiting versican synthesis (31) by smooth muscle cells. Smooth muscle C. Cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle alpha-actin (αSMA) is the definitive marker for the activated cardiac fibroblast population known as the myofibroblast (Frangogiannis et al., 2000), but this actin isoform is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle … B. Chronic respiratory disease affects many people worldwide with little known about the intricate mechanisms driving the pathology, making it difficult to develop novel therapies. In addition, studies with both human and rat smooth muscle cells have shown that these growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules can modulate smooth muscle cell phenotype in vitro (14,20,92; … Most smooth muscle is of the single-unit variety, that is, either the whole muscle contracts or the whole muscle relaxes, but there is multiunit smooth muscle in the trachea, the large elastic arteries, and the iris of the eye. Both PDGF and TGF-β increase production of versican and biglycan (17, 29). This suggests that the dynamics of airway function are influenced by the expression of several distinct smooth muscle and extracellular matrix proteins.To our knowledge, this is the first study showing an association between airway hyperresponsiveness and smooth muscle … Invited Review HIGHLIGHTED TOPIC Biomechanics and Mechanotransduction in Cells and Tissues Mechanical, biochemical, and extracellular matrix effects on vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype … Larger groups or bundles of muscle cells … J. Here we focus on the roles of extracellular matrix components and their receptors in the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells. It has been shown that the extracellular matrix … Proliferation and extracellular matrix production by human infragenicular smooth muscle cells in response to interleukin- 1 J3 Elizabeth A. Forsyth, M D , H a m d y M. Aly, M D , P h D , Richard F. Neville, … These developments have led to increased research on SMC. Tallquist, in Encyclopedia of Cardiovascular Research and Medicine, 2018. Keywords:Extracellular matrix, vascular smooth muscle … ... B. Alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) production and remodeling of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been implicated in processes related to the differentiation in atherosclerosis. by vascular smooth muscle cells. Spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB), a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality, must involve premature cervical softening/dilation for a preterm vaginal delivery to occur. Increasing evidence suggests that mechanical cues inherent to the extracellular matrix … Calcium must be transported into the smooth muscle cell from the extracellular matrix by Calcium Calmodulin. Smooth muscle contraction requires both myosin activation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. However, the mechanisms of extracellular matrix disorders in the dissected aortic media remain unclear. Research into better treatments for asthmatic people normally focuses on the pathology of the cells, and leaves the matrix outside of the equation. Park, M.D. Replacement C. Inflammation D. Edema. Has many cells and very little extracellular matrix … We previously reported the non-pregnant human cervix contains considerably more cervical smooth muscle … Which type of tissue repair occurs when the new cells are of the same type that were destroyed? J Cell Physiol. Recent findings Recent observations highlight the importance of … Improving the understanding of airway smooth muscle and extracellular matrix … Title:Extracellular Matrix on the Phenotypic Switching of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1 Author(s):Zhongjiang Chen, Yi Fu and Wei Kong Affiliation:Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, P. R. China. Extracellular matrix rigidity governs smooth muscle cell motility in a biphasic fashion. The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is surrounded by a complex extracellular matrix that provides and modulates a variety of biochemical and mechanical cues that guide cell function. 2005; 204(1):198-209 (ISSN: 0021-9541) Peyton SR; Putnam AJ. Sae-II Murtada, Department of Biomechanical Engineering at Yale University | Wednesday, October 30, 2019: 2:30pm - 3:45pm 29 Galis ZS, Muszynski M, Sukhova GK, Simon-Morrissey E, Unemori EN, Lark MW, Amento E, Libby P. Cytokine-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle cells synthesize a complement of enzymes required for extracellular matrix … A. Vitamin D modulates the composition of extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells from human aorta | CM & NH Journal Vitamin D modulates the composition of extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells … Vascular smooth muscle cell durotaxis depends on extracellular matrix composition Christopher D. Hartmana, Brett C. Isenberga, Samantha G. Chuaa, and Joyce Y. Wonga,1 aDepartment of Biomedical … muscle, extracellular matrix and innervation in vulvar lichen. ECM degradation and matrix metalloproteinases The matrix … A. This study was designed to investigate the relevance between smooth muscle … Title:Extracellular Matrix on the Phenotypic Switching of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1 Author(s):Zhongjiang Chen, Yi Fu and Wei Kong Affiliation:Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, P. R. China. 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