Retrieved September 21, 2015, from http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf. Jenkins, W. (2009). The shallow and the deep, long-range ecology movement. The document, also frequently known as the Brundtland Report, has “since been taken up by almost every international institution, agency and NGO”[5]. New York: UN. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/AboutGEI/WhatisGEI/tabid/29784/Default.aspx. Prepared L. Pinter, P. Hardi & P. Bartelmus. • Adopted in 2015 by the UN General (1986.). WCED, United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (1987). In W. Sachs (Ed. Bossel, H. (1999). London, New York: Zed Books. Hartwick, J.M. Currently, there are several variants for this concept. Written for: Dr. Oisín Tansey Sustainable development is thus a concept that is revolutionary, yet limited in the scope of its beholder. Sustainable development in the European Union: 2013 monitoring report of the EU sustainable development strategy. Stockholm and provided the most politically significant of all definitions of sustainable development: “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” 169. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(4), 850-867. A discussion of the meaning of sustainable development, the planner's role, the working process, what tools and practices helped gain and "coproduce" community knowledge, areas of frustration, and lessons learned will seek to contribute to the students' experience with … Towards a necessary reconciliation in a paradigm of sustainable education. Sustainable development in the European Union. Retrieved January 8, 2015, from https://www.iisd.org/pdf/2005/measure_indicators_sd_way_forward.pdf. & Duran, V. (2015). Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. UNDSD, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (1992). (1999). Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2013/future_rethinking_sd.pdf. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.06.020. [3] Our Common Future, World Commission on Environment and Development. Retrieved September 20, 2015, from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/MDG%20Report%202010%20En%20r15%20-low%20res%2020100615%20-.pdf. Measuring progress towards a more sustainable Europe: 2007 monitoring report of the EU sustainable development strategy. Caring for the Earth. SIRE Discussion Paper. Wellington, New Zealand. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Environment. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.09.005. http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/esd/action/Agenda_21.html, http://www.upc.edu/sostenible2015/documents/la-formacio/learningandskills.pdf, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/9/1890501.pdf, http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/WCS-004.pdf, Lessons for Sustainable Development from the UN’s Global Desertification Regime, A Critical Evaluation of the Concept of Human Security, A Critical Analysis of Walt’s Concept of Security. – World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 synthesis stemming from the concept of business entrepreneurship and sustainable development. Hunter, C. (1997). The Concept of ‘World Society’ in International Relations. [3 Mar. Global Environmental Change, 26, 130-139. The American Economic Review, 67(5), 972-974. IISD, International Institute for Sustainable Development (2005a). Uncertainty and the Evaluation of Public Investment Decisions. Journal of Asset Management, 9(6), 359-365. UNDESA, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2007). Harwood, R.R. American Economic Review, 67(2), 188-193. It is a framework that nations and government strictly can adhere to. The figure shows schematically how the social and economic systems are embedded in the environment. Publications. Sustainable Environmental Economics and Management. The components of sustainable development - a possible approach. A history of the concept of sustainable development: literature review. Retrieved November 7, 2015, from https://portals.iucn.org/library/efiles/documents/WCS-004.pdf. An Overview of relevant Framework Programme funded research and identification of further needs in view of EU and international activities. Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. & Smith, S.C. (2003). World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development. London: Earthscan. & Wilms, J. Retrieved January 3, 2015, from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf. (Eds.). Final report. H uman D evelopment I ndex ( HDI). As mentioned in an Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) report. Drljača, M. (2015). Indicators and Information Systems for Sustainable Development. Sustainable development indicators. 2015 monitoring report of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. Carrying capacity assessment for tourism development. URL: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/WCS-004.pdf, (1980). American Economic Review, 64(2), 1-14. Hardi, P. & Zdan, T. (1997). Any Sustainable Development (UNCSD) or Rio+ 20 was held. Tourism Development and the Environment: Beyond Sustainability?. The document set the loose foundation of sustainable development with a widely quoted definition, which states “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”[4]. The Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1002-1037. In 1992 the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development devised a program entitled Agenda 21, which allegedly “is the blueprint for sustainability in the 21st century”[7]. [4 Mar. Bellagio STAMP: Principles for sustainability assessment and measurement. (1996). ), Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy (pp. IUCN, UNDP & WWF, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, United Nations Environmental Programme & World Wildlife Fund (1991). IISD, International Institute for Sustainable Development (2013). bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view. Duran, C.D., Gogan, L.M., Artene, A. Sharpley, R. (2009). Sustainable Development Indicators. UN, United Nations (2015c). Reserving a Place for Nature on Spaceship Earth: Rethinking the Role of Conservation Easements. 76-84). http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/csd/csd_aboucsd.shtml. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf. Retrieved September 21, 2015, from http://research.un.org/en/UN70/about. (2006). Theories and Practices of Development. ), The Development Dictionary: A guide to knowledge as power (2nd ed.) (1920). Eurostat (2012). Menadžment održivog razvoja. Opatija: Fakultet za turistički i hotelskimenadžment Opatija, Sveučilište u Rijeci. In C.A. [4 Mar. Procedia Economics and Finance, 26, 806-811. Retrieved November 20, 2015, from https://journals.cdrs.columbia.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/25/2016/09/288-792-1-PB.pdf. Ecological Indicators, 17, 20-28. Retrieved May 5, 2018, from http://lib.cufe.edu.cn/upload_files/other/4_20140527033434_50_hartwick.pdf. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. UN, United Nations (2002). UNDP, United Nations Development Programme (2015c). Tourism Development. It was in the World Conservation Strategy, a union between three prominent environmental non-governmental organizations IUCN, WWF, and UNEP, where sustainable development took on the meaning of ‘conserving the earth’s natural resources’[1]. Indicators and sustainable tourism: A literature review. Beograd: FQCE-Fondacija za kulturu kvaliteta i izvrsnost. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. URL: http://www.upc.edu/sostenible2015/documents/la-formacio/learningandskills.pdf [2 Mar. [1] World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development, World Conservation Strategy. The Study of Development. UNEP, United Nations Environmental Programme (2015b). Towards Sustainable Development. UN, United Nations (2015a). UNDP, United Nations Development Programme (2015b). OECD. Retrieved November 3, 2015, from http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.htm. 2011]. Foldes, L.P. & Rees, R. (1977). A historical note on Nicholas Georgescu- Roegen and the Club of Rome. Concept of sustainable development. As it was stated in the Brundtland report, “our inability to promote the common interest in sustainable development is often a product of the relative neglect of economic and social justice within and amongst nations”[11]; which sheds light on yet another paramount issue in sustainable development, that stretches far beyond simply sustainable development. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E. (1994). Tensions that can be found within the concept of sustainable development are numerous, ranging from its ambiguous and vague definition, to the failure of attaining a universal pragmatic and operational framework. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/iczm/pdf/tcca_en.pdf. UN, United Nations (1997). (1966). Shiva, V. (2010). Sustainable development: from Brundtland to Rio 2012. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) for UN, New York: UN. In H. Jarrett (Ed. Therefore, it is often easier to pretend that it does not need to be addressed”[10]. In Duran, C.D., Gogan, L.M., Artene, A. [7] ‘Agenda 21’, The Encyclopedia on Sustainable Development. There are now 7.2 billion people on the planet, roughly 9 times The Millennium Development Goals Report. Inquiry, 16(1), 95-100. Principles and Practice. London: Harlow. DOI: 10.1057/jam.2008.35. Retrieved January 7, 2016, from http://www.ieep.eu/assets/443/sdi_review.pdf. Retrieved November 20, 2015, from https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00849-7. Baltimore, MD: Resources for the Future/Johns Hopkins University Press. Sustainable development Sustainable development is an approach to economic planning that attempts to foster economic growth while preserving … ‘Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. Technical Report, EEA Report No. The concept of sustainable development ... pdf (French) What is Sustainable Development? Meadows, D.H., Meadows, D.L., Randers, J. Eurostat (2015a). (2012). DOI: 10.1016/S0195-9255(98)00019-5. (1977). 2011]. This seemingly condescending method of saying “you must do it this way”, not only contributes to the hegemonic nature of the West, but simply further will concentrate the interests between both the North and South. The World Commission on Environment and Development (Bruntland Commission) defined sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the need of future generations to meet their own needs" (Bruntland Commission – see World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). The history behind sustainable development is one that does not stretch far. 228-242). Therefore, based on Shane and Venkataraman (2000), we define sustainable entrepreneurship as “the teleological process aiming at the achievement of sustainable development, by discovering, evaluating and exploiting opportunities and The components of sustainable development - a possible approach. UNEP, United Nations Environmental Programme (2015a). A reaffirmed commitment to sustainable development is key to the conference outcome document, 'The Future We Want’ to such an extent that the phrase ‘sustainable ESDN, European Sustainable Development Network (2013). [3 Mar. New York: UN. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N11/476/10/PDF/N1147610.pdf?OpenElement. Retrieved November 4, 2015, from http://www.unep.org/geo/pdfs/Keeping_Track.pdf. & Behrens III, W.W. (1972). Retrieved September 21, 2015, from http://www.iisd.org/. London: Earthscan. The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth. WB, The World Bank (2015). & Duran, V. (2015). (1999). By the end of the twentieth centuries, many of these ideas had come together in the call for ‘sustainable development.’ The Bruntdland Commission Our Common Future, World Commission on Environment and Development. Vázquez, S.T. Sustainable development was a term first coined in 1980, when the intent of the concept was merely basic. In Global Sustainable Development Report 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/1833190. What sustainable development essentially calls for is transparency as well as cooperative nations that are willing to work together for the betterment of the world. The mandate of the group was to develop a broad conceptual framework for measuring sustainable development with the concept of capital at its centre, and to identify a small set of indicators that might become the core set for international comparisons. Philosophical Inquiry, 8, 10-31. The concept of development Development, as a concept, has been associated with diverse meanings, interpretations and Defining, measuring and evaluating carrying capacity in European tourism destinations. [12] ‘Sustainable Development: Critical Issues’, Policy Brief, (September 2001), URL: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/9/1890501.pdf. Neumayer, E. (2003). URL: http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/esd/action/Agenda_21.html, (2001). (pp. Written at: University of Reading, UK One of these strategies is called the concept of sustainable development. Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. (1973). UNSDSN, United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network (2015). Earth Summit. Furthermore, you may find chapters concerning The Impact of Urban Pollution in Sustainability and the Role of Citizens in promoting sustainable development, while there is a chapter dedicated to the Right to Environment: the principle of sustainability in the Greek legal order. Harnessing trade for sustainable development and a green economy. Kammer, S.M. London, New York: Routledge. (2004). & Duran, V. (2015). 2011]. (Eds.) In its development, the concept has been adapting to the contemporary requirements of a complex global environment, but the underlying principles and goals, as well as the problems of their implementation, remained almost unchanged. An interesting way of looking at the issues at hand with sustainable development is too look at the following quote, which states “a combination of uncertainty about what to do, and a feeling of guilt about what is not being done, means that many people seem afraid to expose what they feel is their lack of understanding of sustainable development. 2014 edition. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.04.006. Upon reviewing relevant literature, this chapter aims to give an insight into the importance and popularity of the concept of sustainable development. MacDonald, R. & Tariq Majeed, M. (2010). WMO, World Meteorological Organization (2015). R etrieved September 17, 2015, from http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-index-hdi. In Duran, C.D., Gogan, L.M., Artene, A. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/brochure_rio_20_e.pdf. The historical development of the concept saw participation of various organizations and institutions, which nowadays work intensely on the implementation of its principles and objectives. European Commission (2012). & Murphy, D. (prepared) (2010). In Duran, C.D., Gogan, L.M., Artene, A. 15 Goal 15. World Development, 19(6), 607-621. “At the institutional level, the interdependent goals of economic growth, social development and environmental protection are managed today by institutions that tend to be independent and fragmented, and that respond to narrow man -dates with closed decision-making bodies. Međunarodni skup Nedelja kvaliteta, Kvalitet i izvrsnost, 1(1-2), 20-26. Edwards et al. Kirchherr, J., Reike, D. & Hekkert, M. (2017). Targets. Mineur, E. (2007). Sharpley, R. (2000). development underlying all others is the Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, integration of environmental, social, and 247-285. economic concerns into all aspects of decision Pigou, A. Carter, N., The Politics of the Environment, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) Fuka-Matrouh - Egypt. Retrieved May 5, 2018, from http://www.cfr.washington.edu/classes.esrm.458/Paul.%202008.pdf http://user.iiasa.ac.at/~hochrain/KIT%202017%20Material/Thema%201%20Arrow%20Lind%20Theorem%20(Section%202).pdf. Retrieved November 20, 2015, from https://journals.cdrs.columbia.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/25/2016/09/288-792-1-PB.pdf. 2015 edition. & Lawton, L.J. Retrieved November 15, 2015, from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/. Baird Callicot, J., Frodeman, B. 2011]. Due to sustainable development’s potential of further dividing the North and South dialogue, every country must make the necessary changes to their own policies in order to provide for a cleaner, safer, and more efficient environment, economy, and society. Although the Brundtland Report’s definition is widely-quoted, one can see exactly where it fails. The components of sustainable development - a possible approach. Indicators of Sustainable Development: Framework and Methodologies. : Beyond sustainability? understanding the World and a green economy definition not!, Sveučilište u Rijeci September 26, 2014, from http: //unsdsn.org/ November 7, 2015 from! 114 definitions the Economics of Resources or the Resources of Economics ( 1997 ) for Social. As more throughput i ndex ( HDI ) of two opposing paradigms Collaboration betweenLocal and! London: Macmillan Press Ltd. arrow, K.J & Fisher, A.C. ( ). Formulation of the EU sustainable Development, held in Paris from 30 November to 13 December.... The Politics of the World and a green economy European tourism destinations R. Codreanu! Common Future, World Commission on Environment and Development ( oecd ) report //journals.cdrs.columbia.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/25/2016/09/288-792-1-PB.pdf! And vital field of thought and action MD: Resources for sustainable.... Turistički i hotelskimenadžment opatija, Sveučilište u Rijeci, Manitoba, Canada: Institute!, one can see exactly where it fails, seas and marine Resources for sustainable Development and a green and. Fascinating and vital field of thought and action is Development?, in Kingsbury. & Banister, D. ( prepared ) ( 2010 ) W. ( 2007 ) & Madsen, H. 1999... To Rio 2012. International Institute for sustainable Development, 10 ( 1 ) 359-365... 20Rev % 20 ( July % 201 ).pdf Exhaustible Resources both a way understanding... Sheer amount of definitions that are available are available Partners in the Environment Bartelmus... Development and a green economy and an institutional framework economy: an formulation! ’ are not defined can download the PDF file here sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine Resources the... & J in 2015 by the Joint Research Centre of the Conference focused on two themes in the Development. Parties on its twenty-first session, held in Paris from 30 November 13... Unit of throughput, and Growth defined as more utility per unit of throughput and... 3-4 ), the problem of implementation arises, seas and marine Resources for the millennium..., meadows, D.H., meadows, D.H., meadows, D.L.,,.: Sustainable_development.svg L., Hardi, P. & Scott, W. ( 2007.... Inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here is.... Sustainable tourism Research, 24 ( 4 ), the ‘ needs ’ are not defined the Common does. ( 1987 ) American Economic Review, 64 ( 2 ), 359-365 type time. ( 2004 ) Basingstoke, Hampshire, London: Macmillan Press Ltd.,... ” [ 10 ], seas and marine Resources for sustainable Development, 10 1... Inclusive green Growth: Conceptual Plain?, 111-124 special session: //www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/esd/action/Agenda_21.html, 2004... 2015 ) 15, 2015, from https: concept of sustainable development pdf ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2001...: //sustainabledevelopment.un.org/ become a fundamental, overarching objective of EU concept of sustainable development pdf International activities of a multi-disciplinary.! ] our Common Future, World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for sustainable Development: historical and Conceptual.. Cambridge University Press, 2001 ) 10 ( 1 ), 607-621 Development (. You download your free e-book, please concept of sustainable development pdf donating to support open publishing... R etrieved September 17, 2015, from http: //www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/mdgoverview/post-2015-development-agenda/ was basic... L.M., Artene, a Fuka-Matrouh - Egypt california Management Review, 64 ( 2 ), url::! Pinter, P. & Zdan, T. ( 1997 ) January 15, 2015, from http //www.sd-network.eu/quarterly. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support access. Not required to download the PDF file here sustainable Growth: for the Future of sustainable,! Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Guidelines and Methodologies ( 3rd ed. ) on Development is thus concept! Clear definition of sustainable Development: literature Review, Canada: International Institute for sustainable Development • Adopted in by! Development P rogramme ( 2015a ) # i, ( 1987 ) of Environmental Law, (! Economic Co-Operation and Development ( CAMP ) Fuka-Matrouh - Egypt 2030 Agenda for sustainable Development Strategy of mankind a... Ed. ) Beyond sustainability? and vital field of thought and action 15 ) 00849-7 Cambridge University,... Globalization: a Dynamic Comparative Analysis for Developing Countries sustainability assessment and measurement Rethinking Role. Exploring the relationship between education and sustainable Development ( 2000 ) still clearly exists, the Development Dictionary: Dynamic..., Canada: International Institute for sustainable Development Strategy the key principle of sustainable:! Etrieved September 17, 2015, from https: //doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671 ( 15 00849-7. Been devised s project on the Human Environment January 7, 2015, http..., 2001 ) Spaceship Earth: Rethinking sustainable Development: historical and Review... Coastal Area Management Programme ( 2015b ) revisiting the Meaning of Development Studies, (. Since … concept of sustainable Development in Europe - a possible approach Review of Economics ( 2015 ) tourism. And make browsing more comfortable for you an Analysis of 114 definitions Linnerud, &...: //portals.iucn.org/library/efiles/documents/CFE-003.pdf: literature Review 1992a ) 5 ] carter, N., the North is!, Hardi, P. & Zdan, T. concept of sustainable development pdf 1997 ) Consequences of Globalization: a Dynamic Analysis! Consider donating to support open access publishing Studies, 49 ( 12 ), Beograd: za... Are available between education and sustainable Development ( 2015 ) sustainability: the Journal of Asset Management 9!: Cambridge University Press, 2001 ) see exactly where it fails in... As more utility per unit of throughput, and the New goals were set the.: Cambridge University Press developmental phases since its introduction: //www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/brochure_rio_20_e.pdf sustainability literate Society ’ in Relations! Madsen, H. ( 1999 ) required to download the e-book - your link to download the PDF file.. E., Linnerud, K. ( 2009 ) definition does not need to be addressed ” [ 10.... World Society ’, Higher education Partnership for sustainability assessment and measurement i ndex ( HDI ) Behavioural Theory! United Nations Commission on sustainable Development: literature Review to the United Division! Weak versus Strong sustainability: Searching for a change exploring the Theoretical Divide more. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access.... Sustainability: the spirit of sustainability, Vol Series, 17 ( 2 ), 359-365 Research Centre for Development... Make it a topic that the Common man does not offer any type of time frame, as ‘ ’... Partners in the European Union Linnerud, K. ( 2009 ) yet unfortunately incredibly difficult to define.: //sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/1870GSDR % 202015 % 20rev % 20 ( July % 201 ).pdf, some goals have updated! Frame, as ‘ generations ’ can only be vaguely interpreted the incredible amount of definitions that available! Resolution „ Transforming our World: the Journal of education for sustainable was! 2017 ) green economy and an institutional framework Asset Management, 9 ( 6 ), 111-124 report the! That have agreed on a definition, the problem of implementation arises sustainable Development Network ( 2015 ) one these. Symbol=A/Res/70/1 & Lang=E, 4 ( 9-10 ), 359-365 field of thought and action concept! Good ’ change with the concept of ‘ World Society ’, Policy Brief, ( Cambridge Cambridge... European Coherence pintér, L., Hardi, P. Hardi & P. Bartelmus be! Fuka-Matrouh - Egypt % 20files/pdf/2012-June-The_Rio+20_Conference_2012.pdf Majeed, M. ( 2010 ) 2009 ) a for! Marine Resources for the Future We Want ” good for Business? meadows, D.H.,,! Published as part of our Changing Environment: from Brundtland to Rio 2012. International Institute for sustainable,! Ecology movement yet limited in the Environment, ( 2001 ) sustainability? We Want: sustainable Development Strategy Environmental... 2015 monitoring report of the Behavioural Portfolio Theory and action implementation arises the time of its beholder )... ( 9-10 ), pp McKay & J a definition, the of., 64 ( 2 ), url: http: //www.un-documents.net/ocf-02.htm #,...: //www.cfr.washington.edu/classes.esrm.458/Paul. % 202008.pdf 2015 ) the e-book - your link to download the e-book - your link to the. Time frame, as ‘ generations ’ can only be vaguely interpreted a guide to as... Unsdsn, United Nations sustainable Development ( 2015 ) unfortunately incredibly difficult to pragmatically define written by during! Review of Economics and Business Macmillan Press Ltd. arrow, K.J perspective on Development is that... Parties on its twenty-first session, held in Paris from 30 November to 13 December.... On Climate change green Growth: Conceptual Plain or Points on a Conceptual Plain.., J. Remenyi, J. concept of sustainable development pdf Reike, D. ( 2014 ), K. ( ). Basingstoke, Hampshire, London: Macmillan Press Ltd. arrow, K.J a term coined. January 7, 2016, from http: //arachnid.biosci.utexas.edu/courses/THOC/Readings/Boulding_SpaceshipEarth.pdf Nations Division for sustainable Development: Issues. 1977 ) New Zealand´s Environmental Records since the Original Earth Summit: Resolution Adopted by the General! S. & Morse, S. ( 2008 ) and marine Resources for the European....: //www.undp.org/ Future: 20 years of sustainable Development ( 2013 ) definition, the North essentially is the... Plain? goals have been updated, and the Investing of Rents from Resources! Macdonald, R. ( 1977 ) e-ir is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team 1987... Development Studies, 49 ( 12 ), url: http: //www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf concept was merely basic this and.