Obesity is a worldwide health problem. In addition to angiogenesis, other processes such as endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) recruitment may contribute to the extension of the AT vascularization [60, 61]. During postnatal AT normal growth, AT requires continuous remodeling of the vascular network [47, 48] and the extracellular matrix (ECM) [47, 49, 50]. Adipose tissue is primarily located … Childhood-onset obesity is characterized by a combination of fat cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy, whereas in adult-onset obesity a hypertrophic growth predominates. tissues and anchors organs in place. The beige adipose tissue (BeAT) is similar histologically to brown adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, or fat tissue, is considered a connective tissue even though it does not have fibroblasts or a real matrix, and has only a few fibers. These cells include endothelial cells, leukocytes, lymphocytes, and other immune cells (Fig. Adipose Connective Tissue Although it is a bit confusing, loose connective tissue can be considered a parent category of specialized connective tissues. Coralie Sengenès, ... Anne Bouloumié, in Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity, 2011. Adipose tissue develops extensively in homeotherms with the proportion to body weight varying greatly among species. Adipose tissue is composed of cells called adipocytes that collect and store … Adipose tissue (AT) is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue for energy storage. Brown fat has thermogenic properties. Among the broad panoply of transcription factors, C/EBPs and the basic helix-loop-helix family (ADD1/SREBP-1c) also stand out together with their link with the existing nutritional status. Metabolic, hormonal, and vascular processes within AT are highly interconnected and any disruption will invariably impact the others. It is also interesting to note that the expansion of AT results in hypoxia and increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) that, in turn leads to an up-regulation of various inflammatory adipokines [27, 66–70]. Adipose (Fat) Tissue. Activation of brown fat leads to increased energy expenditure, reduced obesity, and lower plasma glucose and lipid levels and exerts a prominent beneficial effect on metabolic homeostasis. First, we characterized human AT-ECs as double positive for the membrane markers CD34 and CD31 [55]. Licensee IntechOpen. In addition, adipose progenitors (AP), There are two types of fat cells: White Fat Cells, which are the most common type in adults.These are unilocular (have a single large lipid droplet), have a large diameter (100µm or more), and are found in subcutaneous, omentum & mesentry regions. Activation of UCP1 stimulates uptake of lipids and glucose from circulation to process of thermogenesis. The capacity for cell proliferation and differentiation is highest during the first year of life, while it is less pronounced in the years before puberty. In the process, the cells become rounder. The white adipose cells are spherical with a variable size, which depends on the size of the lipid droplet (unilocular lipid droplet). Adipose tissue arises from pluripotent mesenchymal cells (stem cells) and later originates from cells of the reticular connective tissue, which are capable of producing grape-like fatty tissue lobes also. This specific portion of non-adipocytes is called the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) that is approximately 30% of the total cells in the tissue. Initially, a brief introduction to the biology and physiology of brown fat is presented. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. There are used different synonyms to describe the differentiation of WAT into BAT–browning, britening, and beiging. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Adipose tissue, one type of loose connective tissue, stores fat and acts as a cushion for other body structures and as a store of energy for later use. Its specific role is due to uniquely expressed in mitochondria of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Obesity increases the risk of many diseases such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and so on. The vast majority of the adipose tissue mass is composed of adipocytes (approximately 60%). In women, as compared to men, functional brown adipocyte is more common. Introductory Chapter: Types of Adipose Tissue, Adipose Tissue, Leszek Szablewski, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77212. Each kind of adipose tissue works differently. Bone is firm and used for protection and support. In two different strains of mice, they detected a reduction in the number of white cells and an increase in brown cell population, whereas no changes were observed in the total number of fat cells and apoptosis markers were absent in white cells. (A) White and brown adipose tissue is located in various anatomical locations in humans. In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin and is also found around internal organs.Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, which are referred to as 'adipose depots'. 'S a scientific way of saying that brown fat cells is irreversible coalesce to form one large.! The same depot acute inflammatory process, WAT synthesizes substantial amounts of IL-6 storage. Beige preadipocytes, Rens L.J SVF pellet is then plated and expanded ex vivo ) a. Medical University of Warsaw, Poland by ~ 3 to 1 depots during development... 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