in 1936 and an M.A. The Pioneers in this section had active geological careers that overlapped with the plate tectonics revolution; they made significant observations in the Appalachian-Caledonide system, both before and after the 1960’s, that contributed to advancing the plate tectonics model. Paul E. Schenk was born on February 29, 1937 in Stratford, Ontario. In 1984, he was named university research professor, one of the first two at Memorial University; he was also named the James Chair Professor at Saint Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia, Canada, in 1989. In 1955, The United States Geological Survey (USGS) published his Geologic Map of New Hampshire and in 1975 he published the Geology of the Gorham Quadrangle, New Hampshire-Maine. Before the 1960’s, the foundation geologists made observations in the context of good faith that a mechanism for how the Earth works would eventually be formulated and agreed upon. Katahdin) in his honor. An online resource from the Geological Society, aimed at students aged 14 - 16. After completing his studies, Wilson enlisted in the Canadian Army and served in World War 11. He enriched the lives of all who knew him. This interactive website produced by the Geologic Society of London introduces students to the "Pioneers of Plate Tectonics," takes them through "What is a Plate" and "Plate Margins," to "Plate Tectonics … Learn how the theory of plate tectonics has developed, what happens at different plate margins, and the tectonic history of … In a Perspective, Romano and Cifelli chart the history of this theory, which is now called plate tectonics. Matthew Agius is a recent PhD graduate from the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies in Ireland and is now doing research at the University of Southampton (National Oceanography Centre). Hello Select your address Books Hello, Sign in. For the rest of us, plate tectonics is a simple theory that helps make sense of the Earth's face. The tectonic mechanism for the generation of different metamorphic facies series along plate boundaries has changed in Earth’s history. • Create a timeline of the events leading to the theory of plate tectonics. He was born in 1902 in Boston and received his AB, AM, and Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1923,1925. and 1937, respectively. It is truly difficult to miss when unfurled on any wall, or in at least one reported case, a bedroom ceiling. Pp. He was a leading expert on the geology of the Appalachian mountain system. He had an extraordinary memory that was developed through memorization exercises with railroad timetables and baseball statistics. When the concept of seafloor spreading came along, scientists recognized that it was the mechanism to explain how continents could move around Earth’s surface. His graduate school years were interrupted by his WW11 service from 1939 to 1946 in the U.S. Geological Survey and as a scientific consultant to the U.S. From fieldwork begun in the Appalachian Mountains of East Tennessee, he developed a detailed, first-hand, encyclopedic knowledge of the entire range from Nova Scotia to Alabama. He left the ministry in 1969 for a faculty position at Université Laval, where he undertook teaching and research until his retirement in 1995, attaining the rank of full professor. Directions for reading: 1. But learning about it during the last 40 years has given scientists many theoretical tools to understand other planets, even those that circle other stars. Many subsequent papers strengthened his earlier conclusions which, with characteristic courage, he constantly challenged. During his MS studies, he took a position as instructor at the University of Texas where he met visiting professor Charles Schuchert of Yale; Schuchert convinced King to come to Yale for his PhD. W. Jason Morgan (born 1935), American plate tectonics pioneer, won National Medal of Science Bob was a natural mentor who introduced many students and peers to Appalachian geology through field expeditions. The theory of continental drift was the first step toward plate tectonic theory, which became the foundation upon which modern geology is built. Today, this theory helps us understand our planet in ways that were impossible beforehand. The Wilson cycle of seabed expansion and contraction (also called the Supercontinent cycle) bears his name. Here, we discuss the plate tectonic history of Iceland and how it came to be such a unique geological wonder. He loved to hike mountain ridges, swim in lakes and streams, and nap in the sun after lunch.” He was active in the field until he passed away in early 2015, following a brief illness. As an NSF Fellow, in 1963 he earned a PhD at Harvard University. He received a B.A. Even after retirement and throughout his lengthy illness with ALS, he continued to work on his academic research, preparing his final papers for publication. He was the first to receive both the Past President’s Medal (1976) and the Logan Medal (1988) from the Geological Association of Canada. Jan 1, 1596. Required fields are marked *, You may use these HTML tags and attributes:
, AS BG CL CR ESSI G GD GM GMPV HS NH NP OS SM SSP SSS ST TS. Marland Pratt Billings was an American Structural geologist who was considered one of the greatest authorities on North American geology. After the war he entered graduate school at M.I.T. In 1971, Schenk published his provocative benchmark paper entitled “Southeastern Atlantic Canada, Northwestern Africa and Continental Drift“, in which he postulated that rocks of the Meguma Group, which underlies a significant portion of Nova Scotia, were formed off of the coast of Morocco and about 400 million years ago became attached to North America as a ‘chip of Africa’, during the closure of the proto-Atlantic Ocean. History of Plate Tectonics and Alfred Wegener Through his stratigraphic studies he also distinguished many other forms of geosynclines and these studies culminated in the publication of his famous Geological Society of America Memoir 48, North American Geosynclines (1951). The website can also prove to be a good tool for educators. His 1983 research/teaching sabbatical at the University of Cork, Ireland and co-authored publications reveal extensive research in the Canadian Maritimes and Europe which set base-line comparison and verification for the emerging geologic process of plate tectonics. Li, Z.X. Learn how the theory of plate tectonics has developed, what happens at different plate margins, and the tectonic history of … Jim’s Harvard colleague, Marland Billings, led to their joint supervision of about 26 Ph.D. theses that dealt with the bedrock geology of New England. Ciéntificos Que Aportaron a la Teoría de Átomos. This work was published in the Geological Society of America (GSA) Bulletin in 1937, and was titled: “Regional Metamorphism of the Littleton-Moosilauke Area, New Hampshire”. Alfred Wegener: Pioneer of Plate Tectonics: Young, Greg: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Meeting Xavier Le Pichon Prof. Xavier Le Pichon is one of the pioneers of the theory of plate tectonics. You can reach Matthew via e-mail at, Seismology | A small tribute to the pioneers of plate tectonics, tribute to the pioneers of plate tectonics, Earthquake of the month: Russia, deep earthquake M 6.4, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International. The catastrophic plate tectonics model of Austin et al. This motion affects the rock cycle, climate, and the evolution of life. His regional Appalachian experience led to a new interpretation of Appalachian regional scale bends (salient and recesses) in the structural grain of the mountain range (1976) and to an impressive series of regional syntheses and accompanying maps (Pre-orogenic terranes[1989]; Proterozoic rocks east and southeast of the Grenville front[1993]; Continental margin of the eastern United States: Past and present[1993]) for the Decade of North American Geology volumes by the Geological Society of America. The third edition of this widely acclaimed textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of global tectonics, and includes major revisions to reflect the most significant recent advances in the field. 2). In 1946 the family came to the United States on a converted troop ship and moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts where E-an attended high school. See the copyright page for more information. In collaboration with another IAT Pioneer of Appalachian Geology, Hank Williams, Pierre recognized that ophiolite massifs, extending discontinuously from Brompton, southern Québec, to Baie Verte, northwest Newfoundland, delineated a first-order tectonic boundary in the Canadian Appalachians, the Baie Verte-Brompton Line. Marshall remained active in field research until his passing in 1975. His father was a professor of psychology and education at the State University of Iowa (now the University of Iowa). Plate Tectonic Theory Timeline Timeline created by scienceclass2. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. From these observations, he was the first to recognize and establish the mechanism and detailed timing of the Taconic orogeny – i.e., Early to Middle Ordovician subduction of the eastern continental margin of North America beneath a fringing magmatic arc system. Plate Tectonics Interactives. Richard Fortey has noted that “the wide compass of his interests coupled with a reluctance to push himself forward led to him not being recognized as widely as he should have been as one of the seminal Appalachian geologists.” In recognition of his contributions to Appalachian geology, two trilobite species have been named in his honor – Calculites stevensi by Richard Fortey, and Bolbocephalus stevensi by Doug Boyce. In Science and Technology. Dates: May 23-24, 2016, 9am – 5pm EDT. Jan 1, 1596. Theory of Plate Tectonics. He, along with fellow ‘Pioneer of Appalachian Geology’ John Rodgers were the only authors to publish a paper in both volumes of the classic Studies of Appalachian Geology volumes (Northern and Maritime, 1968; Central and Southern, 1970). The principal problem is that almost all oceanic crust older than about 200 million years has been obliterated by subduction. Plates & Bound... Fossil Evidence Glacier Deposit Evidence Tectonic Fit His post doc studies led to a faculty position at Memorial University of Newfoundland in 1971, where he conducted research in Appalachian geology until his retirement in 1994. When war between China and Japan broke out in 1937, his family split up and endured numerous difficulties during the war. Plate Tectonic Theory. After the war, King continued his Appalachian studies and he was involved in multiple regional geologic compilations including tectonic maps of the southern and central Appalachians and a book The Tectonics of Middle North America. This work is indelibly woven into the fabric of much of the research on metamorphic rock research in Appalachian geology. The history of plate tectonics past and future. The Origins of Plate Tectonics May Stretch Further Back in Earth's History Many of our planet's features are thanks to tectonic plates bumping and grinding together. Harry Hess Bibliography October 29, 2019 November 1, 2019 alessandrobrunelli Harry Hess was a mineralogist and professor at Princeton University most of his scientist life. Hank was born in St. John’s, Newfoundland (1934), where he grew up in its rough and tumble Southside Hills section. Bob’s research in western Newfoundland ultimately led to the scientific justification for establishing Gros Morne National Park as a UNESCO World Heritage site. G. Marshall Kay was born in Paisley, Ontario, in 1904, but grew up mainly in Iowa City, Iowa. German scientist Alfred Wegener was a balloonist, Arctic explorer, and meteorologist, but he is best known for pioneering the study of plate tectonics with his theory of continental drift. 1, Spring 1997, pp. The family moved to Caribou, Maine where Bill graduated from Caribou High School, class of 1949. Pierre’s publications on the Québec Appala­chi­ans have been considered as benchmarks in the understanding of the orogen. He graduated cum laude from Dartmouth with an A.B. Matthew’s role as a young scientist representative is to promote the efforts done by young researchers and to engage in discussions that concern seismology students. He received a BA cum laude in Geology from Colgate University (1953), an MA (1955) and PhD (1961) from Harvard University. He was known among his colleagues as “Mr Appalachian Mountain Man”. Jim Thompson firmly believed that to understand better the origins and occurrences of rocks it is essential to have and understanding of the structures and properties of the minerals making up the rocks. Pierre is remembered not only for his geological achievements, but also for being an optimistic person, who was always in good mood, readily accessible to his students and colleagues, and as someone who made friends wherever he worked. He began his career with detailed mapping in the central New England Appalachians, where his work was centered on the detailed tracing of well -defined stratigraphic units, with extensive measurements of minor structural features as a key to regional geometry and kinematics and combined with detailed petrography. The plate tectonics theory has been widely accepted among scientists since the middle of the 20th century. Finally, he held the position of Alexander Murray professor from 1990 to 1995. This plant is among the many specimens that Bill collected from the Trout Valley Formation. The advent of plate tectonics in the late 1960’s confirmed Kay’s ideas of magmatic arcs at the margins of continents and illuminated the tectonic significance of his various types of geosynclines. Alfred Lothar Wegener . This paper remains today a seminal contribution to the understanding of the bedrock and structural geology of the western White Mountains and for the northern Appalachians. This theory became one of the bases for plate tectonics, which revolutionized the geological sciences in the 1970’. Seafloor Spreading. During his career, he conducted research in many areas of New England, the U.S. and the world. David Stewart was born in Springfield, Vermont. His ‘base’ for field studies was centered in northern Maine, where he conducted fieldwork for more than 30 years. Get to know them, learn from their experience, discover the pieces of advice they share and find out where the newest challenges lie! of Geosciences, 2019. Philip Burke King was one of the foremost geological mappers and synthesizers of the 20th century. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work , rock description , geophysical techniques , chemical analysis , physical experiments , and numerical modelling . His MS thesis (1965) focused on the stratigraphy and structure of Humber Arm, where he astutely recognized the deeper water Humber ‘series’ sedimentary rocks as allochthonous on carbonate platform rocks; he also correctly attributed structurally chaotic zones in the area to the emplacement of the allochthons. E-an joined the United States Geological Survey in 1959 until his retirement in 1989, going on “sabbatical” about once a decade to teach at Caltech, 1962, MIT, 1972, Princeton, 1981. He attended Dartmouth College where he received an AB in geology in 1954 and in 1958, and an MSC in geology. Start studying Pioneers of Plate Tectonics. Following his PhD, Doug became an Assistant Professor of Geology at Vanderbilt University (mineralogy and petrology), but soon joined the United States Geological Survey (1962) as a research geologist, a position he occupied for 53 years (the last 19 years as a Scientist Emeritus). They returned to “Free China” in 1942 and lived in Chungking from 1942 to1946. The "Father of Plate Tectonics", Alfred Wegener proposed "Continental Drift" in 1912, but was ridiculed by fellow scientists. At the time of his retirement in 1997, he was a respected Carnegie Professor in the renamed Department of Earth Sciences. These findings eventually led to a more accurate portrayal of how the Appalachian chain evolved and of how Paleozoic oceans closed to eventually form the supercontinent of Pangea. Most of his career was spent with the U.S. Geological Survey, although he also held academic positions for short periods at the University of Texas (Austin), the University of Arizona, UCLA, and the University of Moscow. An online resource from the Geological Society, aimed at students aged 14 - 16. As a scientist of global renown, he is recognized best by the geological community for his acute observational abilities, his unique insights in synthesizing regional geology, and for his reserved, mischievous, and compassionate personality. Exactly how this works is still a matter of debate. In 1954 Jim proposed that the Northern Appalachians contained huge fold nappes, similar to the Alpine nappes of Switzerland-a revolutionary idea at the time. His father was of Scottish descent and mother was a third-generation French Canadian. Throughout his career David worked on field studies of the geology of coastal Maine and synthesized many types of earth-science research to determine the tectonic events involved in the evolution of the Appalachian Mountains in Maine. Students will create a visual timeline of the Pioneers of Plate Tectonics. This is a quiz that will count toward your grade. Also, during the war years, the USGS assigned him to search for manganese deposits in the southern Appalachians. The unifying model mentioned in the forward for “Building the Geological Foundation” is, of course, plate tectonics. Robert Neuman made innumerable contributions throughout his career to the geology of Maine and the northern Appalachians. His paper, on ”The Thermodynamics Basis for the Mineral Facies Concept,” applied work on chemical thermodynamics to metamorphic rocks containing fluids, thus putting earlier observations on a firm chemical and mathematical basis. In 1963 he earned a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin and joined the Department of Geology at Dalhousie University. I commend the authors involved in this model for all their effort. This concept was an important step towards the realization of plate tectonics. Roughly equal and opposite to these are the Subduction Zones, where one plate moves under another and down into the mantle. Peter was a complier for the USGS for the Bedrock Geologic Map of Massachusetts 1983. Doug Rankin was born (1931) and raised in Wilmington, Delaware. He developed a solid professional status with colleagues from the University of Maine at Orono, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard College, University of Connecticut, Rutgers, University, Boston College, United States Geological Survey, and Maine Geological Survey. He was the first geoscientist to be awarded an Izaak Walton Killam Memorial Scholarship (1976 to 1979) and the first scientist to hold it for four years. Please update your bookmarks accordingly. Pierre headed up the first geological-geophysical study on the structural geometry of the lower crust in the Québec Appalachians and published the results in “A deep structural profile across the Appalachians of southern Québec” (St.-Julien, Slivitzky, and Feininger, 1983). He was the first recipient of the Douglas Medal from the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists in 1981. The Tectonics of Middle North America led to his most recognized publication amongst a profusion of high-quality works – The Evolution of North America (1959). Earth's Struct... Geology Wegener, Alfred Hutton, James McKenzie, Dan Hess, Harry Pangaea Interactives. He fully embraced this new tectonic standard and in 1967 Kay convened the famous Gander Conference, an ‘International Conference on Stratigraphy and Structure Bearing on the Origin of North Atlantic Ocean”; he edited an encapsulation of the conference, North Atlantic – Geology and Continental Drift (1969). Jigsaw Fit; Geological Fit; Tectonic Fit; Glacial Deposits; Fossil Evidence; Harry Hammond Hess; Frederick Vine and Drummond Matthews; John Tuzo-Wilson; Dan McKenzie Alfred Wegener: Pioneer of Plate Tectonics (Mission: Science Biographies) [Young, Greg] on Amazon.com. Using the GI Bill to support his graduate education, he earned his PhD in Geology from Johns Hopkins University (1949). He received a degree in geophysics from Trinity College at the University of Toronto in 1930. He was elected President of the American Geophysical Union and served as the Director General of the Ontario Science Centre. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the early 1960s. Jigsaw Fit; Geological Fit; Tectonic Fit; Glacial Deposits; Fossil Evidence; Harry Hammond Hess; Frederick Vine and Drummond Matthews; John Tuzo-Wilson; Dan McKenzie E-an worked primarily in the northern Appalachians, especially on paleogeographic reconstructions and the origins of exotic terranes in New England. Phil proved, truly, to be King in the theory and practice of preparing regional to continental scale tectonic syntheses and maps. The … He received his BSc (1956) and MSc (1958) at Memorial University of Newfoundland and proceeded to earn his PhD (1961) from the University of Toronto. This is a matter of ongoing debate among geologists. He obtained other related degrees from St. John’s College, Cambridge. He was also one of four compilers of the most recent synthesis of Appalachian geology, the Lithotectonic Map of the Appalachian Orogen (2006). Kay’s specialty was Paleozoic stratigraphy; he viewed the regional distribution of strata in time and space as records of geosynclinal and continental evolution. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and served as President of the Geological Society of America. In the 1960s, scientific discoveries about seafloor spreading, combined with earlier theories of Continental drift, led to a theory of plate tectonics. Pioneers of Plate Tectonics. ; he received his BSc (1958) from the Université de Montréal and proceeded to earn his PhD (1962) from the Université Laval. She is best known for her work on the plate tectonic history of western North America, in particular the San Andreas fault system, a roughly 1,200-mile zone that serves as the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Plate tectonics - Plate tectonics - Plate tectonics and the geologic past: The extent to which plate tectonics has influenced Earth’s evolution through geologic time depends on when the process started. While undertaking these studies, King continued to exercise his artistic abilities acquired in undergraduate years, as all of his reports were illustrated by his own, superb, drawings that help to characterize his work; it has been said that his ‘bacon-strip’serial cross-sections included in the professional papers are among the finest illustrations of geologic structures available. A man of many talents, he was equally at ease and engaged whether his hands were on a geological hammer, a camera, a leash, a tiller, or a violin bow. Alfred Lothar Wegener . Alfred Lothar Wegener . Learn how the theory of plate tectonics has developed, what happens at different plate margins, and the tectonic history of … An online resource from the Geological Society, aimed at students aged 14 - 16. (1998). Professor Robinson recognized that the central New England region appears to lie on a tectonic plate that collided with Laurentia to produce the Ordovician Taconian orogeny, was impinged on by Avalon to produce the Devonian Acadian orogeny, and then was further activated during the late Paleozoic Alleghenian orogeny. Plate Tectonics And Plate Boundaries HORRAH!!! At the relatively young age of 38 he was named a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1972. After the 1960’s and the plate tectonic revolution in geology, most studies have been directed at verifying detailed aspects of, and advancing the plate tectonics model. Bob’s studies in northern Maine also led to his recognition of an Early Ordovician episode of faulting and folding that he termed the ‘Penobscottian orogeny’, an event now recognized throughout the northern Appalachians. Table of Contents. Peter Robinson was born in Hanover, NH in 1932 and died in. J. Tuzo Wilson was a Canadian scientist who achieved worldwide acclaim for his contributions to the theory of plate tectonics which had an important bearing on the theories of continental drift, seafloor spreading, and convection currents within the earth. He was a Fellow of GSA (1966) and the Mineralogical Society of America (1988). History of plate tectonics Plate tectonic theory had its beginnings in 1915 when Alfred Wegener proposed his theory of "continental drift." Abraham Ortelius Abraham Ortelius, was the one who came up with the continental drift theory. Plate tectonic activity is being observed presently on a historic timescale, especially in the form of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, but, as with many large-scale Earth science phenomena, it is hard to appreciate the process within the short span of human history, particularly during the small part of history during which we've been keeping records and mapping tectonic activity. After receiving his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1955, he spent three years as a postdoc at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and then as Assistant Professor at North Carolina University. Two new studies revealed that this movement may have kicked off earlier than geologists previously thought. However, in the plate tectonics context (accepted since the seafloor spreading proposals of Heezen, Hess, Dietz, Morley, Vine, and Matthews (see below) during the early 1960s), the oceanic crust is suggested to be in motion with the continents which caused the Dr. Michel Malo; photo courtesy of Dr. Donna Kirkwood. He joined the Québec Ministry of Natural Resources (1962) and established a strong reputation for field geology and regional synthesis. Bob’s seminal research in western Newfoundland documented the allochthonous nature of the Humber Arm Group, the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex, and the Cow Head Group. Most of his work was carried out in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Published as one of the guidebooks, it was accompanied by one of the two earliest tectonic maps of a country (the other a Russian map published at about the same time). In 1968 Hank accompanied Ward Neale to the small geology department at his alma mater, Memorial University. Rogers, Virginia, area (1993). Bill died May 3, 2011 after a long battle with cancer. By Walter Anderson: extracted from, University of Massachusetts, Dept. As an undergraduate he attended Cornell University from 1947-51 where in 1950 he attended field camp in Phillips, Maine. These studies expanded and led to the eventual publication of two classic USGS Professional Papers, Geology of northeasternmost Tennessee (with H. Ferguson, 1960) and Geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina (with R. Neuman and J. Hadley,1968). Plate Tectonics - This site provides a more indepth look into the world of plate tectonics. His numerous publications reveal that he identified and described numerous invertebrate fossil localities in Northern Maine, all previously unknown to the scientific community. Read- Our Changing Earth Plate Tectonic Theory- Intro Theory of Plate Tectonics Pioneers of Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics: History and... plate tectonics - Developmen... Interactives. With Claude Hubert, he co-authored the first tectonic synthesis of the Québec Appalachians in the widely cited American Journal of Science paper “Evolution of the Taconian Orogeny in the Québec Appalachians” (1975); this study represented the first attempt to integrate all relevant geological data into a plate tectonic framework for the Québec Appalachians. Symposium Agenda. Although as low as greenschist facies, which in central Massachusetts, in Silurian-Devonian rocks, represents the most intense regional metamorphism known in the Appalachians. Continental Drift Theory. Bob was born in South London, England, on May 13, 1939. It is noteworthy that this investigation was undertaken well before the nation-wide crustal study undertaken by the Canadian Lithoprobe Program and served as an important reference for that program. In 1915 he published ‘The Origin of Continents and Oceans’, which outlined his theory of Continental Drift. As you read each paragraph, take notes about the key ideas in the E-an Zen was born in Peking (Bejing), China, on May 31, 1928. The third edition of this widely acclaimed textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of global tectonics, and includes major revisions to reflect the most significant recent advances in the field. Abraham Ortelius ... History of Land Transportation. Dave worked his entire career for the United States Geological Survey (USGS), an agency of the Department of Interior, from 1955 to 1995. A professor of psychology and education at the age of 89 in Stratford, Ontario he identified described... 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